Thursday, October 9, 2008

ENDURANCE by Earle E. Liederman - Author and Publisher, (1926), - Chapter 4

Diet has a very important effect upon one's endurance, strength and nervous energy. The one who does not look after his diet will find his powers of endurance sadly slackening. Plain, wholesome food should be eaten at all times, and care should be taken as to the quantities and mixtures of certain foods that go into one's stomach. I am not going to completely discuss diet within these pages, for in one of my other books, Here's Health, the reader will find a complete table of food values, as well as complete advice on food, hygiene, and physiology.

I am a firm believer in fruit juices for the benefit of the stomach. Anyone who has experienced drinking orange juice has found that considerable energy is derived from such a drink. It has been proven that vegetarians and those who eat plenty of fruit have more energy and endurance than meat eaters. The proper diet will keep the bowels in condition, and if their elimination process is functioning properly one will have greater powers of endurance that one would have if one were troubled with constipation or gases in the intestines or other disturbances resulting from defective elimination or other digestive disorders. In a following chapter I will present a further discussion of diet.

I am a firm believer in daily exercise, and I put this belief into practice. In my years of experience with training I have found that the best period for exercising is in the afternoon; but one cannot always take that time for his exercise period. Being just as busy as anyone else, I am forced to give up this best period for my work and to take my exercise in the morning upon arising. It sometimes is not easy to jump out of bed and begin a strenuous twenty minutes or so of exercising; but I have formed the habit of jumping under a cold shower to wake me up, so to speak.

After this cold bath, which I take winter and summer, I feel so pepped up that it is a pleasure to go through my exercises. This shower acts as a natural stimulant; and although I recommend it to those who can endure it and react from it, I would not recommend it to those who have a weak heart, especially an organically diseased heart, or to whom it would prove too much of a shock to the nerves. Some milder form of natural stimulant, therefore, would be better; and I suggest rubbing the body vigorously with a coarse towel and getting the blood into circulation in this manner. As soon as the blood is in brisk circulation the muscles will feel more alive and more like undertaking an exercise drill.

Only the other day a fellow asked me what I thought of stimulants to awaken the body before exercising, referring to artificial stimulants. He asked me what I thought of the use of coffee to whip up the nerves to get more force into movements, in other words using coffee as a stimulant. He claimed that when he first wakes in the mornings he does not have as much force to do his movements as after he drinks a cup of coffee. About fifteen to thirty minutes after having the coffee he feels like exercising. He claimed that drinking coffee at night affected his nerves to such an extent that he could not sleep, and, naturally, he was interested in knowing what effect the morning cup would have upon the muscles. I told him the effect of coffee would be on the nervous system and not on the muscles. Of course, if you stimulate your nerves to react more strongly than ordinarily, the muscles will respond better for a short time; by how about the reaction? I told him he reminded me very much of the circus strong man, whom I have mentioned in a previous chapter, who thought he simply had to do a movement a certain number of times every day. With him it was a sort of disease; and in spite of the fact that his muscles grew tired he had to keep on with the exercise until he had done each of his particular movements a certain number of counts. Naturally, he was forced to use a nerve stimulant in order to create the activity; and instead of improving in size, his muscles grew smaller and smaller because of the gradual exhaustion of his reserve nervous energy.

While I agree that a cup of coffee will stimulate you and keep you awake and enable you to exercise better, there is always a reaction or after-effect. Some authorities claim that a stimulant, if not overdone, will not harmfully effect you, but if overdone it positively will create a detrimental after-effect. However, the extent of the reaction in two different people is not the same. For instance, in a book on diet it relates how experiments with coffee were made upon two people. One of them after drinking a cup of coffee needed a physician to bring him back to health. Therefore, it readily can be seen that the nervous constitution of the person has to be taken into consideration. If a muscle is forced by a stimulant it will grow smaller eventually, for you cannot disregard nature's laws.

Recently I asked a friend of mine how he warmed up in the morning—did he take a cold shower upon arising, did he eat breakfast first to get his body in condition to exercise an hour later, or did he massage himself with a towel as I have previously suggested? He stated that when he got up in the morning he did not feel like exercising; in fact, he found it hard to even get up. Therefore, he started doing sit-ups in bed. After doing ten or twelve of these he was awakened enough to do his leg work, first in bed and then out. By this time he was fully awake and able to stay out of bed and continue with the heavier work.

It seemed to me to be another good suggestion. Most people find it easier to start exercising slowly and warm up the muscles before attempting the heavier work, and I believe the majority of physical trainers consider this the more satisfactory method. But I have found just the opposite to be easier. I prefer to perform a few heavy movements, for after these heavy movements my muscles seem to be in condition to do anything. This, of course, may be an effect of the cold bath which I take before any exercise. An argument against my method is that there is a danger of straining a ligament by beginning the exercising with heavy work. It all depends upon the amount of resistance you are to work against and the capability of your muscles. I would not recommend anyone to lift a heavy weight, for instance, which was all he could lift when in his best condition for such work. If you are capable of lifting overhead one hundred and fifty pounds with tow hands you never should make this lift the first thing upon arising, but rather should limit it to at most one hundred pounds. In other words, two-thirds of your capability should be sufficient if you prefer to begin your morning exercise period in such a manner.

One's feelings or desire for exercise and activity differs greatly on different occasions, and the physical culturist who has experience with exercising will know this only too well. You may take the best of care of yourself, retire at the same time every night, be careful of your diet, and yet on the following day you may not possess the energy and vitality that you experienced the day before. Atmospheric conditions play an important part in this fluctuation of bodily forces. When the weather is rainy or humidity high, we do not feel as energetic as we do in more favorable weather conditions.

I admit that when one is continually striving to perfect some physical accomplishment it is provoking to receive set-backs for no apparent reason. I recall my own experience in hand-balancing. I have been doing the exercise of standing on my hands ever sine I can remember, and am always sure of performing a handstand in all of its variations of press-ups, etc., under almost any condition; but it took me a long, long time to master the one-hand stand. Just when I thought I had it and felt confident I could perform it, I found on the next day that I was all out of balance; I could not for the life of me seem to perform it half as well as I did on the day previous.

This has happened on numerous occasions in the past, and, undoubtedly, was due to the condition of my stomach which in turn reflected upon my vision, and also from the lack of proper coordinative balance in my muscles for this extremely exacting sort of exercise. Should there be the least bit of fermentation in the stomach it is apt to interfere somewhat with the sight, and eyesight in a one-hand stand, in my estimation, plays an important part, as the eyes must be focused on one spot continually. Of course, after one perfects the art of hand-balancing so that it can be done by muscular feeling only, he may perform it blind-folded; but this ability comes only after years of practice, and until it is developed the balance is very uncertain when the vision is uncertain.

Why is it that a golf player who, after becoming proficient in that pastime and who can break one hundred almost at will, will perform rather amateurishly once in a while? I, myself, have found it to be very provoking that on certain days when I feel that I can duplicate my previous game I play like a dub. Gymnasts also frequently have their off days.

These experiences will occur repeatedly in any athletes or physical culturist's life, and when they occur it is best not to attempt one's full program for that day but wait until the next day or the day after, when one again feels in A1 condition. I really believe that many boxers lose their titles because they ignore this fluctuation of energy and box on days when they are off form. Boxers who have beaten their opponents on previous occasions sometimes will be knocked out in turn by the same opponents. This, of course, may come from over-confidence and carelessness, yet I believe that in most cases it happens simply because the boxers experience the off day that anyone will experience occasionally in his athletic career.

Peace of mind and harmony play an important part in endurance. If there be cares or worry upon the mind it is impossible to accomplish what ordinarily can be done when the mind is carefree. More nervous energy can be wasted by worrying or brooding than by any other drain upon the body. I remember reading, years ago, about Joe Gans, the colored lightweight champion, who publicly announced his secret of lowing weight in order to make the lightweight limit. In short, he just worried about losing. Whether this be practical or not remains to be seen. I know, however, that anyone who worries will become thinner, and if the worry is continued nervous exhaustion very likely will result.

If one desires to develop endurance, he must develop organs and nerves capable of withstanding enduring or continued activity. This necessitates the avoidance of every influence that will weaken the organs or lessen the store of nervous energy, and every influence that hinders normal functioning of the organs, normal response of the muscles, and normal transmissions or energy, over the controlling nerves when the energy is required. Not only must worry and adverse thoughts be avoided, but every physical health-promoting and health-sustaining factor must be adopted and a rational program adhered to. Furthermore, a definite goal must be kept in mind, efforts must be always in the direction of that goal, and nothing must be allowed to bring doubts or at least to continue doubts of ultimately reaching that goal.
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UPCOMING WORKSHOPS: NUTRITION & EXERCISE: An intensive workshop - Nancy Clark, MS, RD

COLUMBUS Nov 14-15

DALLAS Jan 16-17, 2009
St. LOUIS Jan 23-24


“I was surprised to learn new information on a topic I thought I knew so well.”
--Registered dietitian/personal trainer, Seattle

Here’s your chance to learn from two internationally known experts at this intensive workshop on Nutrition & Exercise. Sports nutritionist Nancy Clark MS, RD and exercise physiologist William Evans PhD will be offering a 1.5 day program that is designed to help coaches, athletic trainers, exercise physiologists, sports nutritionists, sports medicine professionals as well as athletes themselves find answers to their questions about--

-eating for health, enhanced performance and longevity
-balancing carbs, protein and sports supplements
-managing weight and eating disorders.

See for more details.
The workshop is available as a home study if you cannot attend in person.


Nancy Clark, MS, RD Sports Nutritionist, Author, Speaker Author Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook, Fourth Edition (2008)

William Evans, PhD Director, Nutrition & Exercise Program/Univ Arkansas for Medical Science Author, AstroFit

For: Registered dietitians, athletic trainers, exercise leaders, coaches, sports medicine specialists, aerobics instructors,nurses, physicians and athletes.

Topics include: Exercise physiology, exercise and aging, weight control, sports nutrition, counseling tips for eating disordered athletes, ergogenic aids, creatine, case studies, hands-on information.

Cost: $209; $109 full-time students and dietetic interns


For more information and to register:


Phone: 501-821-3932

For a brochure: Sports Nutrition Workshop, PO Box 650124, West Newton MA 02465

Nancy Clark MS RD CSSD
Sports Nutrition Services (books, powerpoint, handouts) (Columbus, Minneapolis)

NEW 2008 Edition-Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook
Food Guide for Marathoners: Tips for Everyday Champions
Cyclist's Food Guide: Fueling for the Distance

Healthworks, 1300 Boylston St., Chestnut Hill MA 02467
Phone: 617.795.1875 Fax: 617.795.1876

"Helping active people win with good nutrition."
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Missing Links - Part 2 - by Nancy Clark, MS, RD

In Part I of this article, I discussed 5 common missing nutrition links that hurt athletic performance: 1) Respect for the power of food. 2) Sufficient calories during the active part of the day. 3) Equal sized, evenly scheduled meals. 4) A beneficial intake of dietary fat. 5) Pre-exercise fuel. Here are six more missing links, with solutions so you can eat to win.

MISSING LINK #6: Beneficial protein intake Some athletes eat too little protein; others eat too much. For example, a 150 lb (68 kg)athlete may need 0.5 to 0.75 g protein/lb; this translates into ~75-105 g pro/day. If this athlete eats 6 egg whites (18 g pro)for breakfast, one can tuna (35 g) with lunch, a protein bar (20 g)for a snack, and two chicken breasts (90 g) with dinner along with 16 oz milk (16 g) the protein intake will be ~180 grams—excessive, to the point some of the protein could be traded for more carbs to better fuel the muscles. In contrast, a vegetarian athlete on a reducing diet could easily consume too little protein: 2 egg whites at breakfast (7 g), a salad with 1/4 cup chickpeas at lunch (3 g) and a gardenburger (11 g)for dinner. Too little! Solution: Meet with a sports dietitian, so you can learn your protein requirement and how to translate that into meals.

MISSING LINK #7: Iron to prevent fatigue from anemia Iron-deficiency anemia is common, particularly in females. A survey of collegiate athletes indicates 20% of the female volleyball and basketball players were anemic, as were 50% of the soccer team. (Eichner ‘01)Anemia is particularly common among women who have heavy menstrual blood losses, but eat neither red meat nor iron-enriched cereals. Solution: If you don’t eat red meat and feel needlessly tired, get a blood test (including serum ferritin). Your MD might suggest iron pills. Boost the iron content of your diet with:

• iron-rich foods (if not red meat, enjoy dark meat chicken
or turkey, salmon, tuna fish)
• iron-fortified cereals (such as Wheaties, Raisin Bran,Total)
Include with each meal a source of vitamin C (from fruits
and veggies, such as orange juice, berries, broccoli, tomato).

MISSING LINK #8: Post-exercise recovery food. If you are doing hard workouts, you haven’t finished training until you have refueled! “No time” to refuel is no excuse. Solution: Plan ahead; have recovery foods readily available. Even in a time-crunch, you should be able to properly refuel.

MISSING LINK #9: Recovering with both carbs & protein Recovery foods should offer a foundation of carbs, with pro- tein as the accompaniment. Areasonable target is about 240 calories of carbs (60 g carb) and 80 calories (20 g) of protein Some popular choices include Greek yogurt with honey, cereal with milk, a turkey sandwich or pasta with meat sauce. You need not buy engineered sports foods; standard fare works fine and tends to taste a lot better! Athletes who do two workouts a day reallyneed to rapidly refuel with a proper recovery diet. In a six-week study with swimmers, those who did two workouts (morning and afternoon) sprinted slower than those who swam only in the
afternoon (Costill,1991). If nutrition is your missing link, don’t even think about double workouts! Solution: Post-exercise, you may not yet feel hungry for solid foods but you will likely be thirsty. Afruit smoothie (made with yogurt) is excellent for recovery, as is chocolate milk. Both contain carbs to refuel, protein to build and repair muscles and reduce muscle soreness.
Recovery foods can even be eaten pre-exercise. That is, a pre-exercise yogurt gets digested into amino acids and glucose that will be ready and waiting to be used when the exercise stops. In a 10-week studywith recreational body builders, those who consumed a protein-carb supplement both immediately before and right after the mid-afternoon strength training session gained 2.3 pounds more muscle and 7 pounds more in strength (bench press),compared to the group without pre- and post-exercise fuel. (Cribb, 06) Another study compared Marines who drank a carbohydrate recovery beverage with or without protein during 54 days of basic training. Those who received the 100-calorie recovery drink (with 10 g protein)immediately post-exercise reported 17% less muscle soreness after a 6 mile hard hike, 28% fewer medical visits for bacterial/viral infections, 37% fewer visits for muscle/joint problems, and 83% fewer visits due to heat exhaustion (Flakoll 2003). That's impressive!

MISSING LINK #10: Rest days for muscles to refuel Rest is an important part of a training program. Depleted muscles may need more than 24 hours to not only replace glycogen stores but also to heal. Hence, rest days with little or no exercise enhancea training program. Athletes who want to lose weight commonly hesitate to take a rest day because they fear they will “get fat.” These athletes need to understand: 1) On a rest day, they will feel just as hungry because the muscles need food to refuel. 2) They will gain (water) weight. For each 1 ounce of glycogen, the muscles store about 3 ounces water. This water gets released during exercise and is beneficial. Solution:Plan one to two rest days a week. Notice how much better you are able to perform the day after the rest day.

MISSING LINK #11: Adequate Fluids Athletes who maintain optimal hydration can train harder and perform better. For each one percent of body weight lost via sweat, the heart has to beat 3 to 5 more times per minute (Casa, 2000); this creates needless fatigue. Solution: Monitor your urine. If are well hydrated you will need to urinate every 2 to 4 hours; the urine will be a light color. If you sweat heavily, you should make the effort to determine how much sweat you lose (and need to replace) during a workout. Do this by weighing yourself naked before and after exercise. For each pound (16 oz) of sweat lost, you should drink at least 16 to 24 ounces of fluid.

MISSING LINK #12: Sodium before exercise in the heat Research with trained cyclists reports they rode 20 minutes longer to exhaustion (99 vs 79 minutes) in 90°heat when they drank a pre-ride beverage with 1,000 vs ~150 mg sodium. They drank no fluids while riding. (Sims) Solution: If you train and compete in the heat, you should consume some salty foods (salted oatmeal, soup, pretzels) beforehand. The salt holds water in your body and reduces your risk of becoming dehydrated.

MISSING LINK #13: The sports dietitian (RD, CSSD) Serious athletes generally have a support crew that includes a coach, sports psychologist, medical doctor, physical therapist and massage therapist. But to their detriment, some fail to have a sports dietitian on their team. Solution: To get the most from your workouts, use the referral network at www.SCANdpg.orgto find a local registered dietitian who is a Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (RD CSSD). This professional can help you resolve:

• struggles with “no time” to eat properly,
• issues with intestinal distress related to pre-exercise food
• weight issues and undesired body fat.
• disordered eating practices that hinder performance.

The bottom line: Don’t let nutrition be your missing link! You will always win with good nutrition!

Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics) offers private consultations to casual and competitive athletes in her practice at Healthworks, the premier fitness center in Chestnut Hill MA(617-383-6100). Her Sports Nutrition Guidebook (2008), Food Guide for Marathoners, and Cyclist’s Food Guideare available via See also

The Athlete’s Kitchen Nutrition for the Underperforming Athlete, Part IISelected references Casa D, Armstrong L, Hillman S, Montain S, Reiff R, Rich B, Roberts W, Stone J (2000). National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: Fluid replacement for athletes. J Athletic Training35(2):212-224. Costill D, Thomas R, Robergs R, Pascoe D, Lambert C, Barr S, Fink W (1991). Adaptations to swimming training: Influence of training volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc23(3):371-377.
Cribb P, Hayes A(2006). Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports
Exerc38(1):1918-1925. Eichner R (2001). Anemia and Blood Boosting. Sports Science Exchange #81, Vol 14(2).
Flakoll, P., T. Judy, K. Flinn, C. Carr, and S. Flinn. 2004. Postexercise protein supplementation improves health and muscle soreness during basic military training in marine recruits. J Appl Physiol96(3):951-956. Sims S, van Vliet L, Cotter J, Rehrer N (2007). Sodium loading aids fluid balance and reduces physiological strain of trained
men exercising in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc39(1):123-130.
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Thursday, October 2, 2008

Clancy Ross - King of the Bodybuilders - by Joseph Merrette

The King is dead. Long live the King. Clarence Ross the "King of the Bodybuilders" passed away April 30, 2008 at the age of 85. Clancy came to prominence when he won the Mr. America title in 1945.

Clancy was born in Oakland Ca. in 1923. His mother died when he was a young child. And he spent most of his young life in orphanages. When he was 17 he was 5'10" and weighed 135 lbs. He bought a set of weights and put on 15 lbs. At that time Pearl Harbor was attacked and Clancy enlisted in the Army Air Corps. Because of his muscular physique he was assigned as a
weight training instructor. There he met Veteran Bodybuilder Leo Stern. Leo took Clancy under his wing and he blossomed.
After the war Clancy was ready and he entered the Mr. America contest of 1945 and won. And he won nearly every contest he entered.

He became one of the best know bodybuilders of the "Golden Era". With a very muscular physique and beautifully proportioned his picture on bodybuilding magazines all over the world. Not only did he have a great physique but he was very strong also. Some of his lifts include a standing press of 320, curl of 200, Bench 400, and squat of 500. Reg Park who worked out with him was amazed to see Clancy handle a pair of 140 lb. dumbells in his bench work.

In 1948 Clancy entered the Mr. USA contest where only the top builders were invited. Clancy won with Steve Reeves placing 2nd. And non other than Alan Stephan coming 3rd. Such was the competition. In 1949 Clancy entered the Mr. USA contest again to defend his title. It must have been a contest to behold. All the big names of the "Golden Era" were there. There was an additional ingredient of excitement. The "Monarch of Muscledom" . John Grimek was going to compete. It became
a contest of anticipation. Grimek vs. Ross. The immortal John Grimek won with Clancy placing 2nd. And the great Steve Reeves coming in 3rd.

Clancy went on to other titles to numerous to mention. Controversy continued on about if he should have won. The contestants took it in stride and went on with their lives. Clancy was a private person but always remained ready to help any struggling bodybuilder. He continued to work out with weights in spite of knee and hip replacements. King of the Bodybuilders till the end. As I look around I don't see a replacement anywhere. Maybe thats as it should be, Ross, Grimek and Reeves were all one of a kind.
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